Vibrio gazogenes

Gram negative, rod-shaped Gammaproteobacteria

Vibrio gazogenes isolated from Little Sippewissett salt marsh Cape Cod, MA on a salt water medium during summer 2013. The red pigment observed is the compound prodigiosin. Prodigiosin is a secondary metabolite that has been show to have antibacterial, antifungal and even anticancer properties.

Janthinobacterium lividum

Gram negative, rod-shaped Betaproteobacteria

Janthinobacterium lividum was isolated from soil in Cape Cod, MA summer 2013. The soil was sprinkled on rice that was amended with cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth. The rice is used as a bait to induce this purple-pigmented bacterium. Janthinus is Latin for violet-colored and once isolated on nutrient agar it is clear to see that these colonies are purple. The pigment is called violacein which is known for its antibiotic activity. It is currently being studied as a potential anti-cancer drug because of its cytotoxic capabilities.

ViolaceinRice1 ViolaceinRice2


Hericium erinaceus

Basidiomycota fungi

Lion's mane mushrooms, or Hericium erinaceus, is an edible mushroom that can be cultivated. In the wild these can get very large. It is native to North America and I have seen these pretty often in Oregon. This was grown on a sawdust recipe in a controlled environment in our growth chambers. This fungus is also called bearded tooth, pompom, satyr's beard and bearded hedgehog.

Lions Mane Lions Mane2

Agaricus bisporus

Basidicomycota fungi

Button mushrooms, or Agaricus bisporus, are a well-known cultivated fungus. The white cap of the button mushroom is a mutation that has been adopted by the mushroom growing industry as these are also grown with a brown cap. These mushrooms are also referred to as portobello when it is older and more mature. It is also known as the cremini. A common mushroom pathogen is Pseudomonas tolaasii which causes brown blotch. Below is a photo showing the typical lesion symptoms of brown blotch. These were grown in a box lined with plastic and filled with a synthetic compost with a peat moss casing.

Healthy Button Button with P. tolaasii

Lentinula edodes

Basidiomycota fungi

Lentinula edodes, or the shiitake mushroom, is native to East Asia. It is grown widely in both China and Japan. These mushrooms grow on shaded hardwood logs near a water source in the wild.  In the United States, shiitake was not cultivated until the early 1970s as USDA put a quarantine on a closely related fungus that was known to attack railroad ties. Currently this mushroom is also widely cultivated within the U.S.A. These pictured were grown on a sawdust recipe with millet and bran. The hyphae was allowed to brown in the bag where the tops were cut off after pigmentation occurred. This is opposed to browning outside of the bag which removes the top and lowers humidity and after browning occurs, refrigerating followed by soaking. Both of these methods affect yields and break (or flush) frequencies.

Shiitake3 Shiitake2 Shiitake1 Shiitake

Pleurotus ostreatus

Basidiomycota fungi

MePleurotus Oyster Pleurotus

Ganoderma lucidum

Basidiomycota fungi

Ganoderma lucidum, or the reishi mushroom, is most well known for its medicinal purposes.

Reishi Reishi2